Foundation and wall injection

Sikkaton SAN is a dry, light grey powdered mixture that is made of Portland cement, modified silica sand and special inorganic activating chemicals. After mixing with water and injection into suitably drilled holes in the wall, the product forms a layer of insulation that interrupts the capillary action in the wall, making it a great retrofit insulation option.

suché murivo - injektáž základov Sikkaton

Dual effect of Sikkaton SAN 

One of its components closes off the macroscopic pores and cracks in the masonry structure of the wall and another diffuses in all directions around the hole. The activating chemicals react with water and the free ions contained in the wall itself. This generates water-repellent crystalline formations that plug the pores, capillaries and fine cracks in the walls and prepare capillaries to become water-repellent. This creates an impenetrable barrier to the capillary action responsible for introducing moisture into the wall. The mortar penetrates into cracks and hollows in the wall where it solidifies and replaces the portion of the wall removed by drilling. The strength of the structure and the air permeability of the wall itself is unchanged after injection.

Technical procedure for foundation injection

Holes along the plane of the future layer of insulation are marked on the wall. Hole diameters are from 20 to 32 mm depending on the thickness of the wall and the quality of the masonry material. Their axial distance is max. 11 cm, with an angle of ~30° and a length that is 5 cm less than the thickness of the wall itself. Keeping the holes parallel is critical. Openings are cleaned and then sufficiently saturated with water.

Sikkaton SAN is mixed with water in a ratio of 8 l of water to 12 kg of Sikkaton SAN (volumetric ratio of 4:3, or 1 kg Sikkaton SAN = 0.5 l of water). The prepared mixture is then placed into the holes. The process is repeated until the holes are completely filled. The mixed product must be used within 20 minutes. The wall drying process depends on various factors (the physical and chemical properties of the wall, the ambient environment, the extent of moisture saturation, drying method, etc.). White blooms may appear in the wall around the drill holes during this time; they are inert, harmless and easily removed. The resulting insulation layer must be connected to the floor insulation.

Insulation system recommendations

The Sikkaton system should be combined with other methods to eliminate moisture problems (additives to create air permeable plasters or remediation plasters). A project must be completed and followed in the case of retrofit groundwater insulation. Seek expert advice.

Cautions when using injection

Sikkaton SAN cannot be used as an additive in mortars or concrete.  It offers no protection against groundwater with pH < 5.5. Do not apply at temperatures below5° C. Sikkaton SAN creates an alkaline reaction when mixed with water and personal protective equipment must be used during application.

Chemical injection

The wall becomes resistant to moisture once the insulating concrete is applied. The remediated concrete structure is impervious to pressurised water, oil-based or agricultural products and certain chemicals.

izolácia betónu

Crystalline concrete insulation - Sikaton Isol

This dry mortar mixture, grey in colour, is specifically for secondary protection of concrete. It contains active components that improve the insulating properties of concrete and carrier components, specifically Portland cement and modified silica sand. After the application of the insulating material per the provided technical procedure, the treated concrete structure is impervious to pressurised water, various substances and chemicals with a pH > 5.0. 

The principle behind this effect is the formation of crystals that are impervious to water resulting from the reaction between the active components with water and their penetration into the cross-section of concrete. Crystal penetration is at least 60 to 70 mm in depth after 14 days. The crystals are able to penetrating into fine, hairline cracks and defects in the concrete to a thickness of 0.4 mm. Water can no longer permeate into the wall structure in liquid form, but water vapour may continue to penetrate through the structure itself. 

The insulation carrier components create a coating film similar to cement ground on the applied surface that can be removed without having an effect on the effectiveness of the substance itself. Mechanical and structural properties are unchanged by the application of the impregnated substance and the active components do not reduce the corrosion-resistant properties of the concrete steel. It is an ecologically inert product suitable for contact with potable water.

Practical applications of chemical injection

  • Waterproofing new concrete structures
  • Retrofit insulation for old concrete
  • Insulation against ground moisture, groundwater penetration and pressurised water
  • Insulation for pump stations, parking lots and underground garages against oil-based products
  • Insulation for pools, water tanks, wastewater treatment plants, sedimentation tanks and septic systems
  • Insulation for stables, storage for artificial fertilisers, other fertilisers and silage

Approval certificates 

Chief Hygienist of the Slovak Republic Decision 544/2001-ŠZÚ SR
Technical certification C3.3/01/1253/1/C/C04

Chemical injection can be used in a variety of applications

  • insulation for pump stations, parking lots and underground garages against oil-based products
  • insulation for pools, water tanks, wastewater treatment plants, sedimentation tanks and septic systems
  • elevator shafts, power plant cooling towers, bridge pillars, etc.
  • potable water tanks
  • retaining walls and concrete floors
  • vertical insulation of brick walls

Primary advantages of chemical wall injection

greatly reduces wet processes as the concrete does not need to cure; irregularly-shaped concrete structures may be insulated

the use of additives permits the stabilisation and sealing of static and dynamic cracks, structural and expansion joints

seals the concrete structure to protect against oil-based products such as petrol, diesel fuel and transformer oil

perfect insulation for old and new concrete structures against water at pressures of up to 4 Atm

extends the service life and durability of concrete structures and steel reinforcement

resistant to liquids with pH > 5.5

Also suitable for insulation of various non-traditional shapes

Technical procedure

Surface requirements

Surfaces must be clean, with all dust, loose materials, oil, grease, paint, etc. removed so as to expose a clean surface and an open capillary system. Fragments and damaged layers must be removed down to healthy concrete. Cracks wider than 0.4 mm must be cut out and fixed with remediation concrete. Masonry walls must be covered with a special lime-free correction mortar. Given that crystallisation can only occur with water, the surface must be dampened sufficiently. A fresh and damp material is ideal.

Recommendations

While surfaces treated with Sikkaton® ISOL do not require a protective layer, we do not recommend using it as a protective layer on its own as it does not meet aesthetic requirements. The recommendation for Sikkaton® ISOL remediation is to combine it with other methods to completely resolve moisture issues.

Remediation concrete or a special corrective mortar mixture should be used to repair the concrete before the insulating layer is applied.

Application

Sikkaton® ISOL is mixed with water in the correct ratio and is then applied to the prepared surface using a masonry brush or a broom on large-area horizontal surfaces. The surface must be dampened for 4 to 5 days after application. Sufficient air circulation must be provided in confined areas and in deep shafts. Insulation achieves the defined parameters after 14 to 21 days. In the case of concrete floors, a concrete screed may be applied immediately after the application of Sikkaton® ISOL on the foundation concrete. Soil may be backfilled 3 days after the insulation is completed. Once the applied layer of Sikkaton® ISOL cures, loose residues may fall off, which is not a defect and does not affect the functionality or the quality of the insulation.

Cautions when using Sikkaton

Sikkaton® ISOL produces an alkaline reaction when mixed with water and personal protective equipment and a respirator should be worn during its application; skin and mucous membrane irritant.

Storage

Store for up to 12 months in a dry location in sealed, original packaging.

The injection mixture contains non-toxic substances

Sikkaton is composed of cement, modified with silica filler and inorganic activating substances.

Alternative solutions for protecting underground structures from water penetration

Application from the active side

Concrete wall
Treat the concrete base before walls are concreted. Treated concrete does not require additional brick backing.

izolácia betónovej steny z aktívnej strany

Application from the passive side

Concrete wall
Insulation work occurs once the walls are concreted. The peripheral walls and concrete base are insulated together, with particular care given to points of contact between vertical and horizontal surfaces. A lime-free, air permeable plaster is recommended for surfacing on treated vertical structures.

izolácia betónovej steny z pasívnej strany

Application from the active side

Masonry wall
Treat the concrete base before walls are concreted. The first row of the masonry material is installed into a lime-free correction mortar. The joints are cleaned out from the outside to a depth of ~2 cm. Correction mortar is applied on the prepared wall to the required thickness and is treated. The insulated wall does not require brick backing.

izolácia murovanej steny proti vlhkosti

Application from the passive side

Masonry wall
The joints are cleaned out from the inside to a depth of ~2 cm. Correction mortar is applied on the prepared wall to the required thickness. The peripheral walls and concrete base are insulated together, with particular care given to points of contact between vertical and horizontal surfaces. A lime-free, air permeable plaster is recommended for surfacing on treated vertical structures.

izolácia murovanej steny proti vlhkosti